CULTURE OF UZBEKISTAN
Uzbek culture is one of the most vivid and original cultures of the East. These are the inimitable folk music, dances and painting, unique national kitchen and clothes. Popular Uzbek musical work is characterized by the variety of subjects and genres.
The songs and instrumental pieces. We can divide the songs and instrumental pieces according to their functions and forms of existence into two groups performed at a specific time and specific circumstances and those executed at any time. The first group relate the songs related to rituals, the process of work, various ceremonies, dramatized spectacular presentations as well as games.
The Uzbek people is known for his songs. “Kochouk” – this is a song from the daily life of a couplet structure with a small pitch melody consisting of one or two stanzas of the poetic text. There are a number of common features between “kochouk”, “Lapar” and “yalla” – the latter two being also songs from a verse structure. The genus “yalla” includes two types of songs: a melody of a narrow pitch and the accompanied solo dance. Worms popular and professional poets of the East are poetic texts for the songs. The more developed models “achoula” are basically a kind of professional music oral tradition. A special place in the Uzbek musical heritage occupy “dastans” – the epic legend of the lyric-heroic content. The “makoms” are the main basis of professional classical music oral tradition.
In different regions of Uzbekistan, dances differ from each other. Ferghana dances are characterized by softness, flexibility and expressiveness of movement, light step slippery, original movements in place and on a circle. In Bukhara and Khorezm, dance with “kayrakam” (castanets).
The development of national painting began many centuries ago. XVI-XVII centuries in Bukhara – the capital at the time – and other urban centers with considerable success has been achieved in the art of manuscript and binding. The artistic layout of the manuscript consisted of a refined calligraphy and execution purposes ornaments on margins using watercolors. In Samarkand and especially in Bukhara the Central Asian school of miniature boomed.
Ceramics. The production of pottery in Central Asia was one of the most developed areas of production. The forms of the most common ceramics were watering and dry ceramic that had local specificities. The biggest production centers of pottery still exist, such as Rishtan, Guijdouvan, Samarkand – Gurumsaray, Urgut, Shakhrisabz and Tashkent.
Engraving. Contemporary masters working with brass and copper, manufacture high quality engraved metal products mentioned above. Famous masters of engraving are the masters of Bukhara distinguished by the delicacy and richness of images created. In addition to using traditional forms of etching, the contemporary masters looking to develop new forms and styles of engraving.
Embroidery in gold. The traditional center of this trade is in the city of Bukhara. Today, the art of gold embroidery is also popular among the younger generation.
Embroidery. Traditional embroidery centers “suzani” are at Nurata, Bukhara, Ferghana, Tashkent and Shakhrisabz. Young people show great interest in this art. It is not a coincidence – it seems that feeling the possibility of the practical realization and material effect in this art, people are led by creative energy, which in turn leads to prosperity other traditional arts.
The production of carpets. Currently, Uzbekistan carpet production expands in three directions: the work at hand, manufacturing in factories and private companies. The masters of carpet production, produce high quality carpet, regardless of the place and type of production. The main objective in the production of carpets is the reconstruction of ancient drawings, creation of new good quality carpet pictures and, above all, the reconstruction of the technology for the restoration of natural fabric.
The silkworm. The rebirth of the silkworm is related to the operation of the factory “Yodgorlik” in Margilan. Today, the production of national fabrics such as atlas, khan-atlas, the Shakhi-bécassame Bakhmal and is fully restored. It has also restored old traditional models and at the same time, special attention is given to the return of natural paints.
The international music festival “Sharq Taronalari” (“Melodies of the East”)
In order to publicize the National Music Art and Song of the peoples of Eastern countries, maintain and develop the traditions of national music, instill in the young generation love for art, singing the beautiful, genuine human values and that further strengthen the bonds of friendship and brotherhood among peoples, expand the circle of cooperation in the creation of areas of cultural and spiritual relations at the international level, a decision on the organization of the international music festival “Sharq Taronalari” was taken with the adoption of the decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan No. 132 of 11 March 1997. The festival is held every two years in the city of Samarkand.