THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN
Uzbekistan is located between two major rivers – the Amu Darya and Sir Darya. Its territory covers 447,400 km2. The extent of the territory of the Republic of west to east is 1425 km from north to south – 930 km. Uzbekistan has common borders with Kazakhstan to the north-east, with Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan – to the east and southeast, with Turkmenistan – in the west, with Afghanistan – in the south.
The total area of the state border is 6221 km of which 2203 km with Kazakhstan, 1161 km with Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan with 1099 km, 1621 km with Turkmenistan and 137 km with Afghanistan.
Uzbekistan includes the Republic of Karakalpakstan, 12 regions, 121 cities and 163 districts.
The capital of the Republic is Tashkent, which is a major political, industrial and cultural not only in Uzbekistan but throughout Central Asia hence its nickname: “The Eastern Gate”.
Uzbekistan is one of the largest countries in Central Asia in terms of population density; the number of inhabitants is 27.5 million habitantsce which represents 60% of the entire population of the region. In the republic live in harmony with representatives of more than 130 nationalities and ethnic groups.
The majority of the population (over 21 million inhabitants) is Uzbek. The country also hosts a large number of representatives of other peoples and nationalities: Kazakhs, Tajiks, Kyrgyz, Turkmen, Russians, Ukrainians, Tatars, Armenians, Koreans, Uighurs and others.
Approximately 4/5 territory of Uzbekistan are desert plains, the regions of the east and southeast are occupied by the mountains of Tien Shan and the mountains of Hissar. In the Turan plate boundaries shown Ustyurt Plateau, the delta of the Amu Darya the southern side of the Aral Sea and the vast desert Kyzyl Kum. The climate of Uzbekistan is continental.
Uzbekistan is rich in mineral resources. Indeed, all the minerals known to this day have been found. In addition, the Republic occupies an important place globally in terms of reserves in gold, silver, bronze, lead, zinc, natural gas and oil.
The country has developed a significant industrial base representing the aerospace and automotive industry, 45% of the national economy whose main industries are: automotive and aerospace industry, the manufacture of machine tools, the textile industry, gas production, processing of non-ferrous metals, manufacture of electrical, electronics and telecommunications, oil refining, the cotton industry and the food industry.
Countries at the ancient civilization, Uzbekistan is home to countless historical monuments – more than 4000 libraries, cultural centers and museums preserve a large number of manuscripts and rare coins dating back to antiquity and which testify to a rich heritage of Uzbek people.
The most ancient cities of Uzbekistan – Samarkand (2750 years), Bukhara (2500 years), Khiva (2500 years), Tashkent (2200 years), Karshi (2700 years), Margilan (2000 years). Thus the famous Uzbekistan since eighteen, under the auspices of UNESCO, the creation of these world famous cities.
With independence, Uzbekistan has acquired an important status in the international community. The country is a member of the UN and other regional and international organizations.