HISTORY OF UZBEKISTAN
The first historical information on the population of Central Asia, including Uzbekistan, back to the middle of I millennium BC. JC The power of the Persian Achaemenid dynasty was established in Central Asia in the sixth century BC. J. C.; Alexander of Macedon ended that dynasty in the fourth century BC. JC Later the territory of Uzbekistan will be (fully or partially) of the former large states – successors of the empire of Alexander of Macedonia-Seleucid (fourth-third centuries), the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (third-II centuries BC), the powerful Kushan Empire of Central India (late first century BC -.. fourth century AD).
Different cultures and civilizations have contributed to the formation of ethnic Uzbeks, who had Turkish roots and had a majority. The historical development of the Uzbeks took place in conditions of close contacts and merge with the people and the Iranian culture.
Central Asia, including the territory of Uzbekistan, was conquered by the Arabs and attached to the territory of the Arab Caliphate in the eighth century. The conquest was accompanied by the introduction of Islam. The new religion spread quickly among the population, although it took part in Zoroastrianism and some other religions (Buddhism, Manichaeism, Nestorian Christianity). The expansion of Islam led the West in the Islamic civilization area.
The power of local dynasties followed the rule of the Arabs at the end of the ninth century. The states of the Samanids, Seljuks and Karakhanids existed on the territory of Uzbekistan of the ninth to the twelfth century.
In the early eighteenth century Central Asia (with Azerbaijan and Iran) did not stay long as a part of the state of Khorazm-Shahs, which ceased its existence within the scope of Genghis Khan’s hordes . The power soon passed to the Timurid dynasty. It was the time of the highest development of the economy and development of culture (the second half of the XIV – XV centuries). Samarkand was the capital of the state of Amir Timur (Tamerlane). The state of Timurid gathered a vast territory, having created a common legal and economic space. This time and absolute monarchy, formed at this time can be defined as the base of the formation of the structure of the national State of Uzbekistan.
At the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the eighteenth century, Shaybanids succeeded the Timurids. There were three Uzbek khanates in the territory of Uzbekistan for about four centuries, from the sixteenth century to the conquest of Central Asia by Russia in the second half of the nineteenth century: the Khanate of Bukhara (became an emirate in the middle XVIII), the Khanate of Khiva and Kokand Khanate.
In the second half of the nineteenth century, most of Central Asia, including contemporary Uzbekistan, was annexed to Russia. The General Government of Turkestan was formed.
After the revolution in Russia, two Soviet national republics were created in 1920 (the Republic of Bukhara and the Republic of Khorazm).
Fixing the borders of the states of Central Asia for the period of nationalities according to ethnic distribution of the population was conducted in 1924. The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was formed on October 27, 1924. The territories populated by mostly by Uzbeks, entered the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. In the republic was 82% of the total number of Uzbeks living in the USSR; they comprised 76% of the entire population of the new republic. Uzbekistan was part of the Soviet Union for about 70 years, and demographic and social development peculiarities were under the influence of the Soviet Union.
1 September 1991 marked a break in the history of the country, when Uzbekistan declared its independence. On 31 August 1991 the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Uzbekistan adopted the Declaration “On the State Independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan” and the Constitutional Law “On the basis of the national independence of the Republic Uzbekistan “.