ON THE POSITION OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN USE REASONABLE WATER RESOURCES IN CENTRAL ASIA
Reasonable use of natural resources, first of all, hydro-energy, is one of the serious problems in the region of Central Asia.
The various approaches in the sphere of water resources management prevent the stable development, causing environmental disasters and conflict situations. Examples include drying of the Aral Sea has tragic consequences not only for Central Asia but also for the whole Eurasian space.
Drying of the Aral Sea has disrupted the basis of life in the Aral Basin and led to a lack of water for irrigation and drinking water. The salt and dusty storms that form the bare areas of the sea, destroy crops and vegetation. The economic damage has spread to the fisheries and hunting and reduced pasture productivity and fertility of agricultural crops.
In the interventions of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov at the 48-th and 50-th UN General Assembly session it was stressed that “the Aral crisis – is one of the most major ecological and humanitarian disasters in the history of humanity, endangering the lives of tens of millions of people living in the basin of the Aral Sea. “
The water in the Aral Sea basin resources consist of renewable surface and ground waters of natural origin, as well as return water accumulated from economic activity. All water resources of Central Asia from the basins of the rivers Syr Darya and Amu Darya.
When changing the level of the water resources of transboundary rivers, the countries of Central Asia, where more than 50 million people would run to a large ecological disaster and the problems of water supply for the population.
The drought would have adverse consequences for the population and agriculture, including irrigation.
Decisions relating to the use of watercourses of transboundary rivers, including the construction of hydro-power plants, must not result in environmental harm or harm the interests of the people of neighboring countries. Indeed, for a long historical period, use was made in the context of the vital needs of the populations of raw and states.
The UN Conventions on the assessment of the environmental impact in a transboundary context of 25 February 1991 on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes of 17 March 1992 on the law of international watercourses uses force of 21 May 1997 to consider “the assurance of the use of transboundary waters in a reasonable and fair, taking into account cross border in achieving activity, which may or may have a cross-border influence. “
In case of damage, all measures for the liquidation or reduction of that damage must be taken, if necessary, we must ask the question of compensation.
In the UN decisions, it is emphasized that “rivers States cooperate in the basis of sovereign equality, territorial integrity, mutual benefit and consciousness.”
According to these basic requirements of UN conventions, international relevant experts should provide guarantees, according to which the construction of new hydro plants in the region will not irreparable ecological consequences and will not break the balance following the use of rivers by all states located in the basin of these rivers.
Feasibility studies of new water facilities in the basin of transboundary rivers should undergo mandatory objective expertise from international organizations neutral audit.
The World Bank and the Asian Development Bank also hold such a leading position. And Uzbekistan is hoped that the position of these respectable international financial organizations will serve as an example for other organizations and states, thus strengthening the socio-economic security and stability in the region.
Countries investors who want to participate in the projects of construction of new water installations, should not forget the need to respect these conditions.
This position is not a claim from Uzbekistan to individual rights on the priority use of water resources of transboundary rivers. The Uzbekistan’s position is based and fully complies with standards of international law in this area.
Every country has the right to the projects on the use of transboundary rivers resources, including hydraulic engineering, provided that this construction is subjected to ecological independent expertise, technical and economic on the
At the same time we must ensure two important conditions:
- Avoid reducing the level of streams with respect to countries located below the course of rivers.
- Ecological security of the region, which remains constant, should not be overridden.
Uzbekistan for its share continues to take successive measures to ensure the balance of water and energy balance in the region, in order to preserve peace and stability, strengthen security in Asia plant.